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Inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

Use of device

elemental analysis for determination of additives, wear and contaminations

Basic function

a prepared sample solution is introduced as an aerosol into a plasma at a temperature of 6000 to 10000 °C where it is atomised and excited; the excited atoms and ions emit radiation which is detected qualitatively and quantitatively; if necessary, prior to this procedure the sample is submitted to a microwave digestion to avoid matrix effects during the measurement

Result of analysis

all chemical elements except halogens, inert gases, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon; qualitative and quantitative analysis

Goal of analysis

determination of: additives, wear, contaminations, composition of lubricants, condition of used lubricants

Technical specification

fast multi-element technology; low matrix effects; robust technology; wide linear range; detection: µg/kg - mg/kg (or ppb - ppm); more than 20 elements

Sample requirement

1 mL or 0.5 g



Contact

Agocs, Adam
Franz, Rainer




X-ray fluorescence analysis

Use of device

elemental analysis for determination of additives, wear and contaminations

Basic function

a sample is exposed to X-rays and electrons are ejected/excited; the energy released by electrons dropping into lower energy levels is specific for each element

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

determination of: additives, wear, contaminations, composition of lubricants, condition of used lubricants

Technical specification

fast multi-element technology; robust technology; wide linear range; detection: µg/kg - mg/kg (or ppb - ppm); more than 20 elements

Sample requirement

3 g



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Infrared spectrometer

Use of device

identification of lubricants and their components; qualitative and quantitative analysis of lubricant condition (condition monitoring) according to DIN 51451, DIN 51452 and DIN 51453, ASTM E2412, JOAP and various OEM specific procedures

Basic function

the test sample is subjected to infrared radiation and the attenuated radiation is detected as a function of the wavelength; the peak position of absorption bands allow spectrum interpretation for qualitative and quantitative composition; at used lubricant analysis (condition monitoring) where changes of used lubricants are determined and interpreted in comparison with the corresponding fresh lubricants

Result of analysis

formulation of lubricants; used lubricants: oxidation and nitration according to DIN 51453, sulphation, additive deterioration, water, glycol, fuel and soot

Goal of analysis

formulations of lubricants (base oils, additives, lubricants); used lubricant analysis (condition monitoring); allows a rapid interpretation of the condition of lubricants caused by ageing and contamination

Technical specification

measuring range: 7500 - 370 [1/cm] (mid and near infrared); cuvette (transmittance); ATR with diamond (reflection)

Sample requirement

cuvette: 1 mL; ATR: 1 drop



Contact

Besser, Charlotte Mag.
Franz, Rainer




Infrared spectrometer

Use of device

identification of lubricants and their components; qualitative and quantitative analysis of lubricant condition (condition monitoring) according to DIN 51451, DIN 51452 and DIN 51453, ASTM E2412, JOAP and various OEM specific procedures

Basic function

the test sample is subjected to infrared radiation and the attenuated radiation is detected as a function of the wavelength; the peak position of absorption bands allow spectrum interpretation for qualitative and quantitative composition; at used lubricant analysis (condition monitoring) where changes of used lubricants are determined and interpreted in comparison with the corresponding fresh lubricants

Result of analysis

formulation of lubricants; used lubricants: oxidation and nitration according to DIN 51453, sulphation, additive deterioration, water, glycol, fuel and soot

Goal of analysis

formulations of lubricants (base oils, additives, lubricants); used lubricant analysis (condition monitoring); allows a rapid interpretation of the condition of lubricants caused by ageing and contamination

Technical specification

measuring range: 7500 - 370 [1/cm] (mid and near infrared); cuvette (transmittance); ATR with diamond (reflection)

Sample requirement

cuvette: 1 mL; ATR: 1 drop



Contact

Besser, Charlotte Mag.
Franz, Rainer




FTIR microscope

Use of device

spatially resolved FTIR analysis

Basic function

Infrared light is focused by mirrors on a sample, the reflected light can be collected and analysed or mirco ATR can be used

Result of analysis

Spatially resolved information on organic compounds

Goal of analysis

formulations of lubricants (base oils, additives, lubricants); used lubricant analysis (condition monitoring); allows a rapid interpretation of the condition of lubricants caused by ageing and contamination

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer
Schandl, Michael DI (FH)




Stabinger viscometer

Use of device

standard test method for dynamic viscosity and density of liquids by Stabinger viscometer (and the calculation of kinematic viscosity) according to ASTM D 7042

Basic function

the measuring cell contains a tube rotating at constant speed, which is filled with the liquid sample; the measuring rotor swims therein; viscosity is calculated from eddy current torque measurements; density measurements are based on the digital density analysing principle

Result of analysis

viscosity at 40 and 100 °C; density at 15 °C; viscosity index; further test conditions adaptable to customer demands

Goal of analysis

viscosity changes of used oils in comparison to the corresponding fresh oils can attributed to oil ageing effects such as oxidation, degradation of viscosity index improvers by shearing, dilution by fuel contamination, soot formation

Technical specification

dynamic viscosity: 0.2 - 10000 mPas; kinematic viscosity: 0.2 - 10000 mm²/s; density: 0.65 - 2.0 g/mL; measuring temperature: -40 - +100 °C

Sample requirement

> 3 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Device for the production of large quantities of artificial altered lubricants under defined conditions

Use of device

development of lubricants under realistic conditions; production of large quantities of defined altered lubricants for the evaluation in performance tests (engine, bearing, pump) under extreme conditions (end of lifetime, limit)

Basic function

up to 200 litres of fluid lubricant are altered under elevated temperatures, aggresive gas atmospheres, with catalysts and contamination;parameters in the reaction chamber are monitored and adjusted by sensoric systems; during the alteration samples are taken and analysed in the laboratory to document the process

Result of analysis

realistic alteration of lubricants

Goal of analysis

chemical stability, prediction of life time, benchmarking, production of defined lubricants

Technical specification

25°C - 300°C, 20 litres to 200 litres

Sample requirement

Nontoxic liquids with boiling point > 25°C; volume in the range of 20 - 200 litres



Contact

Agocs, Adam
Besser, Charlotte Mag.
Franz, Rainer




Brookfield viskosimeter

Use of device

determination of the apparent viscosity according to CEC L-18, ASTM D 2983, ISO/DIS 9262, DIN 51398

Basic function

via rotation of a measuring bob in a liquid the torque necessary to overcome the resistance of the liquid is measured

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 100 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Capillary viskosimeter

Use of device

determination of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and 100 °C according to ISO 3104, ASTM D 445, IP 71-1

Basic function

a capillary with defined volume is filled with the sample and the draining time is measured

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

30 ml



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Haake rotary viscosimeter

Use of device

measurement of viscosity as a function of shear rate (cylindrical or cone/plate)

Basic function

cylinder/cylinder-contact: a cylindrical rotor is turned within a cylindrical stator with minimum film of lubricant at a given arbitrary temperature, thereby, shear rates between 0 and 40000 [1/s] can be reached; viscosity is determined via the applied torque; cone/plate-contact: a small sample of liquid is placed between a flat plate stator and a conic rotor with an obtuse cone angle; viscosity is determined via the applied torque

Result of analysis

viscosity [mm²/s]

Goal of analysis

characterisation of oils sensitive for shear-stress; measurement of viscosity for very small sample volumes

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 100 mL (cylinder); < 1 ml (cone/plate)



Contact

Franz, Rainer




UV-VIS

Use of device

determination of the absorbing wavelength of a liquid sample

Basic function

spectrophotometry method, using the electromagnetic wave of the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) light

Result of analysis

information on the absorbing wavelength of the molecule, the structure and colour; the longer the wavy region, the greater is the number of conjugated double bonds

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




RULER

Use of device

oil condition monitoring

Basic function

according the principle of voltammetry a current-time-curve is measured

Result of analysis

level of remaining antioxidant additives in the used oil in relation to the fresh oil

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Karl-Fischer titrator with oven

Use of device

determination of the water content according to DIN 51777-1 (direct method) and DIN 51777-2 (indirect method)

Basic function

indirect method: the sample is heated to 120 °C in a closed vial; evaporating water is transferred via flushing gas into the titration cell; water reacts with the Karl Fischer solution; water content can be calculated from the end point of the titration curve

Result of analysis

water content in [ppm] or [mg/kg]

Goal of analysis

water (in oil) may cause corrosion, cavitation, oxidation, and hence is not desired

Technical specification

limit of detection: approx. 1 ppm

Sample requirement

4 mL or 3 g



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Karl-Fischer volumetric

Use of device

determination of the water content according to DIN 51777-1 (direct method)

Basic function

Result of analysis

water content in [ppm] or [mg/kg]

Goal of analysis

water (in oil) may cause corrosion, cavitation, oxidation, and hence is not desired

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Tensiometer

Use of device

determination of surface and interface properties according to EN 14370

Basic function

a defined plate (Wilhelmy method) or a defined ring (Du Noüy method) is brought in contact with the surface of a liquid; the forces occurring on the plate or ring are measured by a balance; capillarity of powders can also be determined

Result of analysis

surface tension [mN/m]; interface tension [mN/m]; contact angle; capillarity

Goal of analysis

tensiometry allows to compare used oils with fresh oils; the contact angle is a measure for the wettability of surfaces (small contact angles for lubrication)

Technical specification

surface and interface tensions: 1 - 999.9 mN/m; test temperature: -10 - +130 °C; diverse atmospheres possible (air, nitrogen, ...)

Sample requirement

classic method: approx. 100 mL; Equipment for little sample quantities: approx. 1 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Spinning drop tensiometer

Use of device

determination of very little interface tensions in emulsions

Basic function

a droplet of the light phase (usually oil) is introduced into a rotating tube filled with the heavy phase (usually aqueous mixtures); the knowledge of the rotational speed of the tube and the diameter of the oil droplet determined by a CCD-camera allows the calculation of the interface tension between oil and aqueous phase

Result of analysis

interface tension between oil and aqueous phase

Goal of analysis

temperature dependence of interface tensions of emulsions and micro-emulsions

Technical specification

interface tensions from 10Exp-6 < 1 mN/m; test temperature: 0 - 100 °C (for water)

Sample requirement

light phase: approx. 1 mL; Heavy phase: approx. 100 mL



Contact

Doerr, Nicole DI Dr.




Orbahn shear stability test apparatus

Use of device

determination of shear stability of lubricating oils containing polymers - method with Diesel injection nozzle - ASTM D 6278

Basic function

a polymer-containing fluid is passed through a diesel injector nozzle at a shear rate that causes polymer molecules to degrade; the resultant degradation reduces the kinematic viscosity of the fluid being tested

Result of analysis

the percentage of viscosity loss is a measure of the mechanical shear stability of the polymer containing fluid

Goal of analysis

mechanical shear stability of polymeric additives, such as viscosity index improver

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 750 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Titrator for total acid number

Use of device

determination of acid number; non-aqueous potentiometric titration method according to EN 12634 and ASTM D 664

Basic function

titration solution is added to an oil-solvent mixture until the mixture becomes "neutral", which is indicated by inflection point of the titration curve

Result of analysis

TAN [mg KOH/g oil] is the quantity of KOH necessary to neutralise acids in 1 g of oil

Goal of analysis

TAN is a measure for the amount of acidic compounds in oils; in the case of used oils acids are introduced by oil ageing, additive degradation and entrainment

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 5 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Titrator for total base number

Use of device

determination of base number - method of potentiometric titration with perchloric acid according to ISO 3771 and ASTM D 2896

Basic function

TBN is determined by titration where perchloric acid is added to an oil-solvent mixture until the mixture becomes "neutral" indicated by the inflection point of the titration curve

Result of analysis

TBN [mg KOH/g oil] is the quantity of base reserve in an oil to neutralise acids

Goal of analysis

TBN is a measure for residual base reserve of an oil, especially engine oils, able to neutralise acids, and thereby allows to gauge continued usability of the oil

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 5 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Flash-point according to Cleveland (open cup)

Use of device

determination of flash and fire points by Cleveland open cup according to DIN ISO 2592 and ASTM D 92

Basic function

approximately 70 mL of test specimen is filled into a test cup; the temperature of the test specimen is increased rapidly at first and then at a slower constant rate as the flash point is approached; at specified intervals a test flame is passed across the cup; the flash point is the lowest liquid temperature at which application of the test flame causes the vapours of the test specimen of the sample to ignite

Result of analysis

flash point [°C]

Goal of analysis

the flash point is important to know for transport and storage purposes

Technical specification

flash points from 79 - 400 °C

Sample requirement

approx. 100 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Flash-point according to Pensky Martens (closed cup)

Use of device

determination of the flash point according to ASTM D 93 and DIN EN ISO 2719

Basic function

determination of the flash point by bringing a glow wire into contact with an air-gas-atmosphere under controlled conditions

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




CEC ageing apparatus

Use of device

testing of ageing resistance according to CEC (thermo-oxidative) according to CEC L-48-A-95

Basic function

the oil sample is aged at a given temperature and a given time period at the presence of air; for determination of the artificially aged oil the following methods are used: NZ, VZ, sludge formation, FTIR, etc.

Result of analysis

artificial ageing according to CEC is a short-term test enabling a prediction of the probable operating performance; test conditions adaptable

Goal of analysis

artificial ageing according to CEC is a short-term test enabling a prediction of the probable operating performance

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 500 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




BAM ageing apparatus

Use of device

testing of ageing proof according to BAM (thermo-oxidative) according to DIN 51352

Basic function

the oil sample is aged at a given temperature and a given time period under air; the artificially aged oil can be determined by: evaporation loss, viscosity, determination of coke content, etc.

Result of analysis

artificial ageing according to BAM is a short-term test enabling a prediction of the probable operating performance; test conditions adaptable

Goal of analysis

artificial ageing according to BAM is a short-term test enabling a prediction of the probable operating performance

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 200 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Baader ageing apparatus

Use of device

testing of ageing proof according to Baader (thermo-oxidative) according to DIN 51554

Basic function

the oil sample is aged at a given temperature and a given time period, with access to air and with periodic dipping of a copper wire as ageing accelerator; the artificially aged oil can be determined by: NZ, VZ, sludge formation, FTIR, etc.

Result of analysis

artificial ageing according to Baader is a short-term test enabling a prediction of the probable operating performance; test conditions adaptable

Goal of analysis

artificial ageing according to Baader is a short-term test enabling a prediction of the probable operating performance

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 400 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Copper strips test

Use of device

corrosiveness to copper (copper strip test) according to DIN EN ISO 2160

Basic function

a copper strip is immersed in the sample oil and stored at a defined temperature for a given test duration; then the copper strip is washed and its colour is compared with standard reference strips

Result of analysis

degree of corrosiveness to copper; test conditions adaptable

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 75 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Steel finger test

Use of device

corrosiveness to steel according to DIN ISO 7120

Basic function

a polished steel finger is immersed in the sample and stored at a given temperature for a given test duration; Afterwards the steel finger is washed and the amount of rust is determined

Result of analysis

degree of corrosiveness to steel; test conditions adaptable to customer demands

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 350 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Cold cranking simulator

Use of device

determination of the apparent viscosity of motor oils at low temperatures ranging from -5 to -35 °C using the cold-cranking simulator according to DIN 51377 and ASTM D 5293

Basic function

an electric motor drives a rotor that is closely fitted inside a stator; the space between the rotor and stator is filled with oil; test temperature is measured near the stator inner wall and maintained by regulated flow of refrigerated coolant through the stator; the speed of the rotor is calibrated as a function of viscosity; test oil viscosity is determined from this calibration

Result of analysis

apparent viscosity of automotive engine oils [mPas] at defined temperature

Goal of analysis

the CCS apparent viscosity of automotive engine oils correlates with low temperature engine cranking

Technical specification

test temperatures : -5 - +35 °C; shear rates: approx. 10Exp5 to 10Exp4 [1/s]; dynamic viscosity: approx. 500 to 25000 mPas

Sample requirement

approx. 150 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Foam test apparatus

Use of device

standard test method for foaming characteristics of lubricating oils according to ASTM D 892

Basic function

the oil sample, maintained at a temperature of 24, 50 und 93.5 °C, is aerated via a cylindrical stone diffusor at a constant rate for 5 min, creating a foam layer on the surface of the sample, then allowed to settle for 10 min; the procedure is repeated at 93.5 °C and subsequently at 24 °C

Result of analysis

foam characteristics at ambient and elevated temperature; foam volume during aeration and after a defined settling time without aeration (device stopped)

Goal of analysis

the test method is used in the evaluation of foaming tendency of oils

Technical specification

foam test apparatus equipped with 1000 mL graduated cylinder; air-inlet tubes with diffuser stones; air flow control unit and baths (see ASTM D 892)

Sample requirement

> 400 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Saponification number

Use of device

determination of saponification number by colour-indicator titration according to DIN 51559-2 and ON C 1148

Basic function

a solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) is added to a diluted oil sample; after boiling the mixture, unconsumed KOH is determined by titration with hydrochloric acid in the presence of a colour-indicator; SN is calculated from the volume of consumed KOH

Result of analysis

SN is the amount of KOH [mg] that is consumed during hydrolysis of the existing ester compounds in 1 g of oil

Goal of analysis

SN is a measure for the amount of compounds sensitive to hydrolysis

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 30 g



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Neutralisation number

Use of device

determination of neutralisation number by colour-indicator titration according to DIN 51558-2 and ON C 1148

Basic function

acid number (AN) is determined by titration of an oil sample with KOH in the presence of a colour-indicator; the used amounts of KOH are directly calculated for the NZ; in the case of base number (BN) hydrochloric acid is used

Result of analysis

AN is the amount of KOH [mg] necessary to neutralise acidic compounds in 1 g of oil

Goal of analysis

AN is a measure for the amount of acidic compounds in oils due to oil ageing, additive degradation and entrainment of acidic compounds, e.g. in gas engines running with landfill gas

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 30 g



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Air release test

Use of device

determination of air release properties of oils according to DIN 51381, DIN ISO 9120 and ASTM D3427

Basic function

compressed air is blown through the oil sample with the sample temperature of 25, 50 or 75 °C; after the air flow is stopped, the time required for the air entrained in the oil to reduce in volume to 0.2 % is recorded as the air release time

Result of analysis

the air release time is the number [min] needed for air entrained in the oil to reduce in volume to 0.2 vol.% under the conditions of this test and at the specified temperature

Goal of analysis

mixtures of air and oil circulating through the lubricating oil system may result in an inability to maintain oil pressure and in incomplete oil films in bearings and gears; the measured value provides evidence about the continued usability of a used oil

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

> 220 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




water separability

Use of device

determination of water separability of petroleum oils and synthetic fluids according to DIN ISO 6614 and ASTM D 1401

Basic function

in a graduated cylinder 40 mL sample and 40 mL of distilled water are thoroughly stirred for 5 minutes at 54 or 82 °C; afterwards, the time required for the separation of the emulsion is recorded; if a complete separation of the emulsion (respectively a reduction to 3 mL or less) does not occur after 30 minutes, the volumes of oil (or fluid), water, and emulsion remaining at the time are reported

Result of analysis

water separability is defined as time [min] needed for separation of a water-oil-mixture

Goal of analysis

this test method provides a guide for determining the water separation characteristics of oils subject to water contamination and turbulence; it is used for specification of new oils and monitoring of in-service oils

Technical specification

see ASTM D 1401

Sample requirement

approx. 50 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Separation of particles - membrane filtration

Use of device

determination of contamination in middle distillates according to EN 12662

Basic function

the sample is filtered through a membrane filter at 40 °C; then the filter is washed, dried and weighed

Result of analysis

qualitative and quantitative information about solid contaminations

Goal of analysis

information about the entire oil contamination; particles on the membrane filter can also be studied with a microscope

Technical specification

membrane filter according to standard: 0.8 µm; membrane filters between 0.1 - 3 µm available

Sample requirement

> 250 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Density

Use of device

determination of the density according to DIN 51757

Basic function

an oil sample is introduced bubble-free into a test chamber, consisting of an oscillating quartz tube, and maintained at a constant defined temperature; the oscillation frequency of the quartz tube swings as a function of the density of the contained medium in another frequency which can be measured and thus the density can be calculated

Result of analysis

Kg/mm³

Goal of analysis

the extent of oil aging can be deduced from a change in density

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Micro carbon residue

Use of device

determination of the carbon residue according to DIN EN ISO 10370 and ASTM D 4530

Basic function

quantitative carbon residue of lubricating oils under nitrogen atmosphere, due to higher carbon residue of used oils and longer chain fresh oils, the determination of coke residue allows drawing conclusions about the quality or the state of ageing of the examined oil

Result of analysis

content of coke [wt.%]

Goal of analysis

due to higher carbon residue of used oils and longer chain fresh oils, the determination of coke residue allows drawing conclusions about the quality or the state of ageing of the examined oil

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 10 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Mini pour point

Use of device

determination of the pour point in a micro scale procedure according to DIN ISO 3016

Basic function

the oil sample is slowly cooled down; the Pourpoint is defined as the temperature at which the oil is not yet solidified and can be poured

Result of analysis

pourpoint [°C]

Goal of analysis

cold-flow-properties of an oil

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 10 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Vaporisation loss according to Noack

Use of device

determination of the vaporisation loss by heating under controlled conditions according to CEC-L40-A93 Method B and ASTM D 5800 Method B

Basic function

over the course of 1 h the oil sample is heated under reduced pressure to a temperature of 250 °C; the occurring loss of weight is determined gravimetrically

Result of analysis

loss in wt.%

Goal of analysis

characterisation of base oils and fully formulated oils (percentage of volatile components)

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 100 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Rotating bomb oxidation test - RBOT/RPVOT

Use of device

determination of the oxidation stability according to ASTM D 2272

Basic function

a mixture of the test oil, and water, and a copper catalyst coil are placed in a vessel equipped with a pressure gauge; the vessel is charged with oxygen to a gauge pressure of 620 kPa, placed in a constant-temperature bath (150 °C) and rotated axially; the duration [minutes] required to reach a specific pressure drop within the vessel is the oxidation stability of the test sample

Result of analysis

induction period [min]

Goal of analysis

determination of induction period as a measure for the oxidative stability

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 100 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Ash

Use of device

determination of the oxide ash according to DIN 51352 or sulphate ash based on DIN 51575 - A (modified)

Basic function

gravimetrically determination of the remaining ash generated during a combustion of a oil sample; oxide ash: the weighed oil sample is calcined at 750 °C; sulfate ash: the weighed oil sample is burned and subsequently washed with sulfuric acid, afterwards the sample is calcined at 750°C

Result of analysis

ash [wt.%]

Goal of analysis

characterisation of oil concerning their chemical composition

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 100 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




water separability after steam curing

Use of device

determination of water separability after steam treatment (DIN 51589)

Basic function

in a cylindrical vessel the oil sample is emulsified with a constant stream of water vapour; afterwards the separation time of the two phases is determined

Result of analysis

separation time in [s]

Goal of analysis

this test method provides a guide for determining the water separation characteristics of oils subject to water contamination and turbulence; it is used for specification of new oils and monitoring of in-service oils

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Permittivity

Use of device

determination of the permittivity of oils

Basic function

measurement of capacity of a defined capacitor construction and determination of the relative permittivity using the constructions cell constant

Result of analysis

relative permittivity

Goal of analysis

monitoring the oil alteration by the means of polarity increase

Technical specification

see standards

Sample requirement

approx. 10 mL



Contact

Franz, Rainer




pH value determination (i-pH)

Use of device

determination of the pH-Value of used oils according to ASTM D 664 (in-house method)

Basic function

the oil sample is mixed with certain chemicals and the pH-Value is measured by a measuring chain

Result of analysis

a generally acidic pH-value

Goal of analysis

the i-pH value reveals information about the loading of a used oil with corrosive acidic components

Technical specification

pH 1 - 14; usually pH < 7

Sample requirement

15 mL or 10 g



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Micro coking tester

Use of device

thermally stressed lubricants, automotive lubricants

Basic function

a defined volume of oil is put on a form one end heated, specially formed aluminium-alloy plate; after 90 minutes the temperature is determined at which the first deposit formation is recognizable

Result of analysis

prediction of lubricant behaviour in engine tests

Goal of analysis

temperature of deposit formation

Technical specification

Sample requirement

> 1 g sample



Contact

Besser, Charlotte Mag.
Schneidhofer, Christoph Dipl.-Ing.(FH)




Determination of colour

Use of device

ASTM D 1500

Basic function

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Turbine-Oxidation-Stability-Test

Use of device

ASTM D 943

Basic function

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Oil ageing - mech-ox-chem

Use of device

examination of the aging of oil as an in-house method

Basic function

Result of analysis

Goal of analysis

Technical specification

Sample requirement



Contact

Franz, Rainer




Amount of gas in fluids

Use of device

Determination of solubility of gases in oils depending on pressure and temperature

Basic function

Well defined contact between tempered oil and gas under controlled conditions; pressure monitoring during the experiment; reaction can be influenced by stirring rate and temperature

Result of analysis

Pressure trend of selected gas in a liquid; pressure drop will be converted into gas solubility [L/L]; [L/kg] or [mol/kg]

Goal of analysis

Estimation of expected pressure drop in case of contact between a gas and a liquid, as well as changes in process components because of gas absorption

Technical specification

Pressure: 10-170 [bar], Temperature: 20-85[°C]Most technical, non corrosive gases

Sample requirement

100-500 ml sample; gas (in case of special gases) in a pressure vessel with approx. 50% higher pressure then the required experiment pressure



Contact

Adler, Michael